As if the SolarWinds fiasco wasn’t enough to completely undermine any trust in technology security, Microsoft is warning everyone about a significant exploit in its Exchange email platform that is actively being leveraged by a Chinese advanced persistent threat group dubbed “Hafnium.” According to Microsoft’s Threat Intelligence Center, this group is known for targeting entities in the United States primarily to steal data and intellectual property from a wide swath of industry, political and government organizations, but with this recent exploit, the attackers have spread globally, attempting to compromise as many servers as they can before administrators can patch vulnerable servers.
What this means for you
First and foremost, if your email is provided by an on-premise Exchange Server that is not being actively maintained by a qualified technology professional, you may be in danger, and you should contact an IT professional or a company like C2 immediately. It will be important to patch your servers immediately and then determine if the server has been breached. If you are breathing a sigh of relief because your email is hosted in the cloud, it’s still important to make sure your vendor has taken appropriate steps to make sure their platform is properly secured as they may be using Exchange to provide email services to you.
If your email is provided by Microsoft 365 or Google, this exploit does not impact you directly, but keep in mind that vendors and clients you work with may have been compromised, which may also have implications for your organization. Information stolen from a client or vendor in breach could be used to impersonate a trusted individual in an attempt to trick you or someone in your organization into any number of activities that could end up directly affecting your bank account. One of our clients recently notified us that one of their vendors fell for an email spoofing campaign that resulted in that vendor writing a very large check to pay off our client’s invoice, but that check was sent to a fake address. Even though you might not be directly impacted by the Hafnium campaign, the sheer size of the information breach means that someone likely very close to your organization may be affected. As such, you and all your organization’s employees should treat any unusual emails or transaction requests with caution and skepticism for the foreseeable future.
Image courtesy of Stuart Miles at FreeDigitalPhotos.net
Among the many problems of the internet, one of the most egregious is the fact that anyone can create a website, put it online, and not really be held accountable for what is actually published on said website. Let’s take the website of home automation company Orvibo, who, at the time of this article’s writing, states on their website:
“Cloud platform supports millions of IoT devices and guarantees the data safety.”
The claim that their platform supports “millions” of devices is backed up by the Orvibo database size, which appears to contain more than two billion records, but the fact that we know exactly how many records are in the cloud platform and that their database is currently open for viewing on the internet without a password is the exact opposite of guaranteeing data safety.
How can a company screw up so badly?
I’ve answered this rhetorical question several times in the past on this blog, but in case you’ve missed it: Technology is fallible because humans are fallible. They are also lazy and sometimes downright malicious, but in the case of the Orvibo database which remains open and accessible at the time of this blog’s publication, we have a stunning example of gross negligence and incompetence that is impacting millions of its customers in very personally identifiable ways. Among the two billion records that includes customers from China, Japan, Thailand, Mexico, France, Australia, Brazil, the United Kingdom and the U.S. are email addresses, passwords, geolocation data, IP addresses and device reset codes. Given that Orvibo devices include home automation and security products, the data exposed in this open database gives hackers literally the keys to many family’s homes and hotel rooms, and could potentially endanger their actual lives.
What should you do if you are using Orvibo technology in your home or workplace? Discontinue using it immediately if possible, and if that isn’t possible, see if you can at least disconnect it from the internet and change any passwords used on the device, especially if it’s a password you’ve used elsewhere (also a no-no for just this very reason). It’s not clear when, or even if, Orvibo will address this vulnerability anytime soon, nor will we know whether the data has been access by anyone with ill intent, but in this case, erring on the side of caution is the best course of action.
Hold onto your hats, ladies and gents, because this latest breach is a doozy! Up to 500 million individuals who have transacted with Starwood Hotels & Resorts (now owned by Marriott) have had their information exposed in a massive breach. According to the statement released by Marriott, the Starwood guest reservation database was compromised as early as 2014 and information up to September of this year is considered exposed. Compounding the severity of this issue, already ranked as one of the largest so far, is the amount and type of data exposed “… includes some combination of name, mailing address, phone number, email address, passport number, Starwood Preferred Guest (“SPG”) account information, date of birth, gender, arrival and departure information, reservation date, and communication preferences.”
What this means for you
If you happened to be one of the 500M who has stayed at a Starwood, even if it was before 2014, it’s still likely that some of your personal information was exposed in this breach. Though Marriott has said they started contacting individuals affected, for some of us who stayed at a Starwood hotel before email address collection became common place (myself included), and have since changed mailing addresses, Marriott may have some difficulty contacting you to let you know you were impacted. To be on the safe side, you should definitely consider a credit freeze (if you haven’t already put one in place from the previous Equifax breach) and you should take advantage of Marriott’s offer of a free year of WebWatcher monitoring service. As the name suggests, this service will monitor the web for your personal information (which you can enter yourself) and alert you if any of those data points appears somewhere on the web. Granted, that might actually be you entering that info, but if not, you have a head start on countering a possible identity theft in progress. And while you are at it, why not sign up for an alert from HaveIBeenPwned.com which keeps track of all the major breaches and will also alert you if your email address is on the growing list of breaches occurring almost weekly now.
I’ll dispense with the editorializing about Facebook and other internet giants playing fast and loose with our information and get down to the nitty-gritty of what you should know about the latest Facebook breach, which I initially wrote about (only) two weeks ago:
- Go to this Facebook link (while you are logged in to Facebook) to determine if you were one of the 30M that was affected by the breach: https://www.facebook.com/help/securitynotice
- Initial estimate of compromised accounts revised down from 50-90M to “just” 30M (OK, you got me, I can’t help myself).
- Approximately half (15M) of the compromised accounts had an extensive amount of information leaked, including data that most people would consider private, such as religion, relationship status, recent searches and geographical location.
- The other half (14M less the small percentage in the next line) had access to names and email addresses or phone numbers, or both.
- Three percent (about 1M) did not have any information exposed though their access tokens were stolen.
- Nobody’s Facebook passwords was stolen as part of this breach.
- Facebook cannot divulge motive or identities as it is working with the FBI, but based upon analysis of the attack, the hackers were organized and well-equipped to pull off the data heist. Translation: likely nation-state or organized crime-backed.
What this means for you
If you happened to fall into the bucket where a large amount of private information was exposed by Facebook, be extremely wary of targeted phishing attempts, usually sent by email. Because your information is now readily available to be cross-indexed with any numerous other items exposed in previous breaches, it’s trivial for cybercriminals to create very realistic emails that appear legitimate based upon the use of this stolen data, whether it be fake password reset notifications from widely used services like Office 365, Facebook, Gmail, SnapChat, or strangely familiar emails using that private data to trick you into revealing additional info or access to strangers pretending to be co-workers, friends or even family. Just to add insult to injury, if some of the leaked data is info you might use as an answer to the “Forgot your password?” questions many services use, hackers can now use that info to try and guess your answers to reset your password for their own nefarious purposes.
Just because your password wasn’t stolen in this breach doesn’t mean that it wasn’t exposed in any of the myriad breaches over the past several years. Visit this site – https://www.haveibeenpwned.com/password – to determine if it might be exposed, and if so, continued use of it will likely result in any account secured by the exposed password being compromised very soon.
Back when I first heard about Facebook I was working for a private university known for its “dry” campus. I was asked to consult on the case of a student who was being disciplined for violating the no-alcohol policy because a picture had been discovered of them buying booze at a nearby supermarket. It had been uploaded by the student’s friend to a hot new website called Facebook. I distinctly remember discussing this with staff and faculty at the time, predicting, “This is going to get a lot of kids in trouble.” There was discussion of banning access to the site, but filtering internet content back then wasn’t as straightforward as it is now, and the discussion was tabled with a promise to review the issue at a later time. Fast-forward to the present, where Facebook is still getting a lot of people in trouble, and themselves as well.
From the frying pan, to the fire, to…incinerator?
It might be hard to believe, but it was only June when we had to air out the latest load of dirty laundry from Facebook. Prior to that, they have been blog subjects seven times this year alone, and none of them were for something good! I’d say this month’s two-fer entry might be their pièce de résistance of colossal cock-ups, but there are still 90 days left in the year, and Facebook seems bent on setting some sort of record for destroying themselves.
First, they were caught red-handed letting advertisers use phone numbers provided by users for authentication purposes, something they had previously denied. To add insult to injury, it’s also come to light that they will also target individuals through contact information uploaded by their friends through the Facebook app, even if the individual never provided any sort of consent for such use.
If that isn’t enough to get your blood boiling, how about 50M Facebook users having their accounts compromised? Rather than the old-fashioned password hack, attackers exploited a bug in Facebook’s “View as” feature which allowed them to essentially steal the authentication token used to provide continued access after you’ve initially logged in. Think of this token as a VIP wristband you might wear at an event that also gets you access to the backstage. This token not only provides you a quick login to Facebook but to dozens of other connected services, such as Instagram and WhatsApp, that allow users to authenticate through Facebook instead of creating a unique login and password. Just like the wristband, Facebook only looks at the token and not the person using it, to determine what they are allowed to access, so you might get an inkling of why it being stolen is kind of a bad thing. The investigation is still ongoing, but according to Facebook, no passwords or credit cards were stolen, and it doesn’t look like the perpetrators of the September breach used their “wristbands” get into the various third-party platforms it could have granted access to, but I’d put even money on Facebook having yet another, “Wait, hold my beer,” moment, so don’t put the pitchforks too far out of reach.
Unfortunately for the two billion humans who are still trying to get some sort enjoyment (or livelihood) out of Facebook, there really isn’t any platform that comes close to being able to replace it. Your choices are “deal with it” or go cold turkey, the latter of which I don’t see any of my Facebook-hooked friends doing any time soon. If you’ve tied your various other online services to Facebook’s login in the pursuit of convenience, it only makes giving up Facebook that much harder and further illustrates just how dangerous this type of practice can be – Facebook login gave everyone a shovel, and quite a few people dug a hole that they have no idea how to get out of. Sadly, not climbing out of that hole and permanently putting the shovel aside essentially rewards Facebook for their negligent security practices, something that we should not do if we ever want the service to be something more than a way for advertisers and hackers (and Facebook!) to exploit for their own profit.
For the most part, everyone that I speak with has come to accept the possibility that the Internet knows much more about them than they might think. Their acceptance (which ranges from grudging to incredibly blasé) of a faceless, amorphous entity known as “the Internet” being more familiar with them than their neighbors is made acceptable exactly because the Internet has achieved that same omniscient and omnipresent position as “the Government” or “the CIA” or, dare we say, God him/her/itself. These entities are out there, both comforting and ominous, but not personal, not sitting right next to you.
Perhaps we’ve been doing this wrong.
People aren’t scared, upset or even bothered anymore when we tell them their privacy has been invaded by the “Internet”. In truth, that’s a kindness, because the specifics are much more disturbing. A security researcher just uncovered a veritable treasure trove of personal information on nearly 340 million Americans, i.e., all of us. This information was being hosted in an unsecured database by marketing firm Exactis, and it holds close to 2 terabytes of data. And unfortunately for all of us, it’s much worse than credit cards and social security numbers. Instead, it’s much more personal, such as home addresses and phone numbers, number of children in the family, interests, hobbies, habits, shopping preferences, up to 400 variables on each person in their database, including whether they are a smoker, how many pets and what type, and yes, religious affiliation.
If you ever question how online advertising could be so specific, wonder no more. The marketing firms know where their bread is buttered, and firms like Cambridge Analytica and Exactis are sacrificing your privacy on the altar of data aggregation for the almighty dollar. How does one fight back? Make sure you understand where your local congress critter stands on matters like privacy, encryption and regulatory enforcement on failures like the massive Equifax breach for which exactly zero justice or compensation was delivered.
Get out and vote.
I’d like to say we actually went a few weeks without having to talk about Facebook because they weren’t in the news, but in reality, they were. I was just exhausted with the punishment they have been taking in the media ring, and rang the bell out of mercy rather than letting them continue to get pounded, at least on this blog. But break time is over and its time to lace up. Facebook did come out swinging earlier this week, publicizing their last quarter efforts to clean the place up: over half a billion fake accounts have been banned since the start of 2018, and they have removed nearly one billion posts that violated the social media giant’s guidelines. But the wind was snatched from their sails with news of a yet another breach of user privacy as researchers at New Scientist uncover a leak of three million users’ extremely confidential data gathered by an app called My Personality. The app, designed by psychometric researchers affiliated with Cambridge University, gathered in-depth psychological data on over six million users, half of whom agreed to share their data anonymously with 3rd-parties for research purposes.
Pinky-swear to keep this data confidential?
While I’m sure they didn’t intend to out three million people to the internet, a class project uploaded to a popular code-sharing website by university students was found to contain a login and password to the protected database built by the My Personality team. Whoops. And that data was there, available for the public to access, for 4 years. Double-whoops. Here’s the thing: in order to gain access to this data originally, one had to register for access, and were supposedly bound by a strict confidentiality clause. Two-hundred and eighty people from 150 companies did register, but you can bet at least an equal number (and probably many more) did not, once they discovered the “backdoor” uploaded to GitHub. And the thing with data, once it’s out of the barn, there is no telling where it went from there. There’s a hard lesson to be learned from all of this: it’s extremely difficult to control data once you relinquish any control on it, and this control all but vanishes literally one step from that first line of control, as managing the chain of custody scope expands exponentially. You can liken this to the old party game of “Telephone”, but instead of the message getting muddled with each person, the security and responsibility get hopelessly mangled literally in the next whispered exchange.
Do you remember when a technology company in the media spotlight usually meant something exciting and shiny was being announced? Those days seem so distant now. Back then, Jobs was giving us “one more thing,” Google was actually trying to not be evil, Flash was still doing amazing things on the web, Facebook was connecting us with long-lost friends and relatives, and Yahoo was the darling search engine and homepage for millions. Unfortunately for all involved, their present-day state reads like a click-bait-y “Where are they now?” article, and it’s just as depressing as you might think, at least as far as Yahoo Mail is concerned.
So where is Yahoo now?
The former internet giant was divvied up in 2015 between Oath Inc (aka Verizon) and a new company called Altaba. Oath took over the ailing portal and email services, while the more profitable parts of the business, including Yahoo! Japan and their investments in Alibaba were consolidated under Altaba. While it may be hard to comprehend why anyone, let alone Verizon, would pay to take over Yahoo Mail, apparently the revenue potential of millions of eyeballs trying to read emails surrounded by advertising whetted someone’s appetite. Whatever tantalizing profit potential that might have existed, it’s considerably less thanks to a $35M fine handed down by the SEC for the company’s failure to inform its investors of the 2014 breach, which, keep in mind, was a paltry 500M accounts breached as compared to the 3 billion accounts breached in the previous year. Oh, and don’t forget, it’s also highly likely that the US government scanned your Ymail for terrorist activity as well. Would you think less of me if I started calling this service “Why-mail”? Or maybe “Y-R-U-still-using-this-mail”. Oh, how the might-Y have fallen. Alright, I’ll stop now, please don’t unsubscribe!
It had all the trappings of a Hollywood blockbuster: a massive data breach, hackers hired by Russian spies, and a secret operation that went on for years undetected. Except for one rather pedestrian and crucial element. According to indictments handed down by the US Federal Bureau of Investigation, the hackers penetrated Yahoo’s security not through some sophisticated cyber-tango of caffeine-fueled hacker artistry. There weren’t any high-tech micro computers covertly implanted into neon-lit server racks following a series of cleverly choreographed hi-jinks. No, the largest single leak of Personally Identifying Information was enabled by a Yahoo employee falling for a spear phishing attack.
Here comes the email security soapbox again!
What’s a spear phishing attack and what makes it different from the rest of the spam you get in your email? Typical spam and phishing emails are sent to as many people as possible in the hopes that a small percentage will click the link or open the attachment, whereas spear phishing is designed to target a very specific audience or even a particular individual. They are typically several levels more sophisticated than the usual garbage clogging our email as the content is custom-tailored to appear believable to the target. While I’m sure many of you are scratching your heads at how a single click on a fake email could lead to the largest breach in history against a storied dot-com darling, keep in mind that in the ongoing plate-spinning war of internet security, the good guys only win if they can keep all the plates spinning, and the bad guys win if even a single plate falls.
There are many lessons to be learned from this incident, but perhaps the most important one of all still remains: all security systems are only as strong as the weakest link, and many times that weakest link is a human. Given enough resources, time and determination, any security system can be hacked, and any company or organization can be breached. What’s a business owner to do in light of a seemingly unstoppable force? Just like preparing for two other famously unavoidable eventualities, planning for security breach will prepare you to react properly and deliberately rather than a mad scramble for recovery. Not sure how to get started? Pick up the phone and let C2 give you a leg up on getting ready.
Remember when there was nothing more innocent and incorruptible as a child’s teddy bear? For all the potential good the internet can bring, there are some things that should just not get connected, at least until we can secure data properly. The latest black eye for the “Internet of Things” (IoT) comes in the form of a line of stuffed animals that can record and relay messages back and forth between parent and child. While wholesome and lovely in theory, the whole implementation is undermined by poor security and what appears to be a non-trivial amount of carelessness, all the ingredients for a disastrous internet breach. Reports vary, but anywhere from 500k-800k “users” data was exposed to an unknowable number of unauthorized eyes. This data included both identifying information as well as the actual voice messages from both adults and children.
What this means for you:
If you happened to be the (no longer) proud owner of a CloudPet, you have the unenviable responsibility of trying to explain to your child why they can’t use the thing that made this toy special. Hopefully it won’t be traumatizing. While you may be able to enjoy some schadenfreude from the possibility that the company appears well on it’s way to failure, this also means that there will be no recourse or recompense for saddling you with a toy that violated your family’s privacy. Not a CloudPet user? Regardless if you are a parent, relative or even just a friend, think twice before giving a small child an internet-connected toy. Very clearly, we, and the internet, are not ready for such a thing.