Password storage utility LastPass reported earlier this week that they discovered suspicious activity on their servers and as a result, some of their users’ data has probably been compromised: account emails, password reminders and some of the decryption hashes and salts. According to LastPass, user password vaults were not compromised, nor does it appear that any user accounts were accessed. As a precautionary measure, LastPass has turned on a secondary email authentication confirmations for all LastPass logins from new IP addresses, and they are recommending enabling multifactor authentication – a good security practice for any sensitive account (like your email).
What this means for you:
LastPass uses a very strong encryption method to secure your data, and it would take some significant computing resources to crack their encryption from a brute-force perspective. However, if your LastPass master password was easily guessable, in theory they could use the stolen hash and salt to confirm that password, and attempt to gain access to your LastPass account. In short: change your LastPass master password, and if you used that password anywhere else, change it there as well.
In a controlled experiment run by technology website ArsTechnica.com, hackers were given a list of over 16000 hashed passwords and asked to try to decipher as many as possible. Not only were they able to crack over 90% of the passwords in about 20 hours, one of them managed to decipher over 60% of the encrypted passwords in less than an hour using a single computer.
To put this into some context, the target list contained passwords of varying lengths and composition, containing both letters, numbers and symbols, and was encrypted using an MD5 Hash. For the uninitiated, “hashing” a password is a one-way encryption method used to store passwords. When you go to log into your password-protected service, the server takes the password you just typed in, “hashes” it, and then compares it to the hashed password it has stored for you, and if they match, you are authenticated. Hashing is commonly used so that if a server is compromised and a list of passwords is downloaded, all the hackers have gained is a list of unencryptable letters and numbers. Of the encryption methods available, “MD5” is very common, because it requires little computational power, something that busy websites want to reserve for other functions.
The hackers in the ArsTechnica project used brute-force dictionary attacks driven by their own hand-built hash source lists, essentially decoding the target list by comparing hashes with lists that contains upwards of a billion combinations of letters, numbers and symbols. The computers used in this exercise were garden-variety workstations capable of processing several million guesses per second using parts easily procured from any computer store. Late last year one of the hackers involved showcased a cluster computer built using the same parts. Designed specifically for cracking passwords, this machine was capable of processing 350 billion hash guesses per second, and if it had been used in the above exercise, would have rendered out the list in a few hours.
What this means for you:
The real intent of ArsTechnica’s exercise was to demonstrate how trivial passwords are in terms of true security, even ones that are traditionally believed to be very strong, e.g. “qeadzcwrsfxv1331”. The hackers involved in the exercise pointed out the controlled nature of the exercise actually limited their ability and efficiency as compared to “real world” scenarios – the fact that they were limited to traditional workstations and were cracking a list about which they had no further information. Typically, crackers will have much more information about the passwords they are attempting to decipher, such as the security rules enforced when the users create them (e.g. 8-14 characters, must contain a letter, number but no symbols, etc.). Even knowing the service or site the passwords were used on will help crackers decipher passwords, as it will often allow them to uncover the encryption method used to hash the passwords.
If you think you are being clever by creating “hard” passwords that are ten characters or longer and interspersed with numbers, there is a statistically high probability that even that combination will be on these brute-force source lists, especially if you use the common substitutions like 3 for “e”, zero for “o” and so on. Computers have become so powerful that cracking even the most complex passwords is really a matter of patience and persistence.
On the flip side, most services we use are secured against brute-force attacks, at least on an account by account basis. No hacker is going to waste his or her time trying to guess your online banking password via the methods described above, as they would get locked out after the 3rd or 4th failed guess. But if they somehow managed to get into the bank’s servers and download a list of hashed passwords (which has been happening to other services quite often), you can bet your password will soon become another statistical probability in some hackers brute-force dictionary list.